Status of Private Investigation and Security Management in The UK
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Status of Private Investigation and Security Management in The UK

Status of private investigation and security management in the UK

Britain is the first country in the world to create a modern police system. However, the private investigation and security industry are still popular with the British business community and even the royal family. The reason is that on the one hand, the lack of police power itself cannot meet the special security service requirements of certain merchants or individual users. On the other hand, it is also the development of a social commodity economy to a certain stage, and people need to have a security service. The industry can get the services it needs by paying for it, this is the root cause of the rise of the UK private investigation and security industry.


In the UK, private investigations are a part of security services, but the industry has a certain degree of particularity. Therefore, this article will introduce the private security industry to the private security industry.


1. Origin

In the UK, private investigators are also known as private investigators. Although they are all engaged in investigative services, private investigators mainly investigate cases related to criminal cases such as homicides, while private investigators are more extensive in their investigations.


The emergence of private investigators in the UK dates back to the 16th century. At that time, London did not have full-time staff like the police. The public safety of the city was served by the appointed police officer. The police officer is part-time and the part-time police officer appointed to assume this responsibility may not refuse. Since this risky work is time-consuming and unpaid, it also affects the profession in which the person is engaged. Some police officers spend money on their own, hiring some poor people to perform their duties, and acting as police officers.


In some small towns and villages, it is the night watchman who is responsible for local security inspections. Such patrols are rotated by local male residents. Many wealthy people do not want to be employed on their own, and they spend money to hire the poor to replace themselves. Later, there are more and more people doing this. In the end, the employer simply gives the money to the village and town management agencies, and the village and town management agencies find volunteers to watch the night for others. Since the people employed in a village are relatively fixed, these people are paid "salary" from local taxes. These people have become full-time "agent night watchers."


At the end of the 17th century, London began the process of urbanization, and the number of urban populations increased rapidly, followed by a sudden increase in criminal activity. In this situation (the number of law enforcement officials officially appointed is limited, the income of the acting police officers is meager, and too many people are willing to engage in such dangerous work). Therefore, the reality is far from meeting the social needs of stopping criminal activities. After some major criminal cases have occurred, the government or the rich victims have to resort to social rewards to attract people to provide information or arrest criminals. So a group of people who specialize in obtaining bounty to investigate the case came into being. People are early private detectives.


At the same time as the development of the private investigation industry, the more extensive private security industry has also developed in the UK. In the I8 century, criminal activities in the city of London became increasingly rampant. Many people installed sturdy iron-wood doors and windows on their buildings. Rich people also hired private guards or private bodyguards. These private guards or bodyguards are security guards and the security industry is gradually developing. In the 20th century, as police investigations continued to strengthen, many private detectives began to move into the private security industry.


2. Status quo 

1). Private investigation industry

There are currently between 15,000 and 20,000 private investigators in the UK. Private investigators will conduct investigations based on the requirements of the client. Use cameras, telescopes and other shooting and surveillance tools to obtain the information you need to provide customers with services such as personnel and property protection, assistance in investigating criminal and civil compensation cases, insurance claims, fraud cases, child custody and protection cases, and population loss cases and pre-marital investigations, investigations into the loyalty of life partners, etc.


The survey business that each private investigator is good at may have a different focus. For example, some private investigators specialize in intellectual property infringement cases, specializing in investigating and documenting infringements, providing evidence for litigation and civil conduct. Some private investigators specialize in financial investigations and asset investigations, through interviews, investigations, and public documents. Ways to obtain information, some private investigators specialize in computer forensics, they use computers to recover, analyze and provide data. Legal affairs private investigators are responsible for assisting criminal investigations, discovering witnesses, preparing legal documents, with the police and possible witnesses talk, collect audit evidence, and collect information from parties to the proceedings, take photos in court, collect evidence and report on the trial.


The crime investigation work in the United Kingdom is mainly carried out by the police, but private investigators play an important role in some general cases where the police are inconvenient to intervene or innocent. In addition, private investigators also play an important role in the investigation of counterfeiting activities in industrial and commercial areas, as well as in civil and economic dispute investigations.


According to the relevant laws of the United Kingdom, private investigators may conduct investigations on civil cases and minor criminal cases in accordance with the entrustment of the parties, but may not refer to cases involving state secrets and government agencies, and may not hinder police criminal investigation and law enforcement. If a private investigator finds the case as an important criminal case in the investigation of the case he has accepted, they should refer the case to the police and be obliged to provide the police with all the case materials.


The actual income of private investigators will vary depending on the employer and location. The new investigator's annual income is about £15,000. With years of experience, the annual income will increase to £30,000. Private investigators who have acquired a field of expertise or have a qualification will earn a higher annual income of up to £100,000.


2). The security industry

The security industry plays an important role in the UK security industry. According to statistics published by the British Security Industry Association (BSIA) website, there are currently 2,000 companies specializing in the design, production and supply of safety equipment in the UK. More than 2,500 companies (ie security companies) engaged in security protection are employed. The number of security guards exceeds 125,000. The security guarding business accounts for one-third of the UK's entire security market.


The famous British security website Infologue.com announced the list of the top 20 UK security guards with annual turnover from 2008 to 2009 (as of August 1, 2009). 

See Table 1 for details.


British security is divided into two categories: exclusive security and Taiwanese security. The former is the internal security personnel of the unit, which is hired and directed by the unit. The latter is a foreign individual or company specializing in private security services. Its scope and content. They are all executed according to the contract.


The business scope of the UK security industry has expanded with the development of society and the expansion of market demand. In 1995, the research report on the security industry submitted by the House of Commons Affairs Committee of the United Kingdom showed that the scope of activities of the British security industry has gradually expanded to the field of public policy business activities, and the boundaries between the two are increasingly blurred.


Table 1 

Top 20 security guards in the UK from 2008 to 2009 Ranking Company name Estimated annual turnover, million pounds, estimated market share, %, 1 G4S 380 17.27% 2 Mitie plc 263 11.95% 3 Reliance Security Services Ltd 229 10.41% 4 Chubb Security Group Ltd(VSG) 124 5.64% 5 OCS Ltd 103 4.68% 6 Securitas Security Services Ltd 95 4.32% 7 The Corps Ltd 92 4.18% 8 Advance Security Ltd 78 3.55% 9 Advance Security Ltd 75 3.41% 

10 The Legion Group Plc 72 3.27% 11 Interserve Plc 70 3.18% 12 ISS Pegasus Security Ltd 68 3.09% 13 ICTS UK Ltd 65 2.95% 14 The Shield Guarding Co.Ltd 61.5 2.80% 15 Wilson James Ltd 48 2.18% 16 Carlisle Security 32 1.45% 17 Knightsbridge Guarding Ltd 30 1.36% 18 Axis Security Ltd 26 1.18% 19 Ultimate Security 24 1.09% 20 AFC Group 23 1.05% Estimated turnover of the top 20 security guard companies is 1958.5 89.02% Estimated total turnover of UK security guards is 2200 100.00%


3. Training

1). Private investigator

In the UK, in order to join the private investigation industry, relevant work experience is very important. Most private investigators have worked in the military, police, intelligence, customs or news media, or have experience in the security industry. For example, I have done security guards in stores. However, it is easier to enter the survey industry if you have a degree in forensic investigative and criminal investigations or a postgraduate degree or become a member of the British Investigator Association (A13I), or qualify for the UK National Qualification (NVQ) Level 3 Intelligence Analysis.


Engaging in private investigators is a profession that requires a high level of quality. They must be able to systematically and deeply investigate all facts, adapt to a rapidly changing environment, effectively listen and communicate with others, correctly analyze and judge evidence, and accurately record the occurrence of the Hehe Ming incident and submit a written report that assesses the types of risks that may arise and ensures the safety of yourself and others. Private investigators must also pay close attention to the dynamics of the law and ensure that they act in accordance with the law. In terms of personality, they must be cautious, good at observation, calm, calm, have good physical and psychological qualities, and be able to manipulate various technical equipment proficiently. Independently complete the investigation task and work well with other private investigation teams when needed.


The famous private investigative companies in the UK are very serious about the private survey business skills training. They will arrange various training courses, which involve the judicial system and equipment survey methods. It also includes regulatory training on health and safety, data protection, human rights and information confidentiality.


Before obtaining the qualification certificate, a special reviewer is required to conduct the assessment. The evaluation indicators based on it are: whether to obtain vocational skills, whether to meet the national professional standards of the private investigators, and whether they have the corresponding management skills and abilities.


The UK Investigator Association’s service fee is £200 per hour. The tuition fee for cultivating private surveys is £1,500 per person per session, including city and industry registration fees (£35 for Level 3 and £110 for Level IV). There is also a license fee of £27.5. Participants who pay £1,500 in tuition fees have only two exam opportunities. If the two exams are not passed, an additional £300 tuition fee will be charged.


2). Security guards

The UK Security Industry Association believes that the key to inspiring customers' confidence in using security guards is whether security practitioners are well trained. Therefore, the British Security Industry Association established the National Security Training Institute (SITQ) in 1991. According to the modern education and training concept, a set of scientific and practical training standards courses and training models have been formed. In recent years, about 500,000 people across the UK have undergone security professional training, and the quality of security guards has improved significantly. They have been entrusted to train security management talents in countries around the world.


Like the training of the police, the training of security guards in the UK is mainly based on vocational training. Education is not implemented. The government is not responsible for the education and training of security guards. The security companies are mainly responsible for their own. Some large security companies rely on their long history and solid realities, and their education and training can be described as self-contained. For example, the well-known private security company Group4 has its own research publications as well as its own scholars and experts. Most of the more than 3,000 middle and senior employees employed by the company have master's and doctoral degrees, and many managers with professional expertise. The training base in the northwest suburbs of London, with its international training center, covers an area of more than 200 acres. It is one of the most advanced training centers in the world. The teaching and training facilities such as the library, training hall and computer room are all available. It is responsible for the training of the company, including overseas branches, and is also commissioned by other companies to train employees outside the company. About 2,000 security guards around the world study or study here each year.


Due to the highly specialized nature of Group4, its training content for different security guards and security management personnel is not the same, with different emphasis. Although the training targets are different, some courses are the most basic and are set as public courses, such as electronic security technology systems, computer security and information protection security investigations, risk assessment and analysis, crime prevention theory, management methods and capabilities. It is this kind of targeted education and training system that guarantees the high quality of American security personnel and guarantees the high quality of service in the UK security industry.


4. Supervision 

1). Laws and regulations

Before the introduction of the Private Security Industry Act 2001 - the UK was the only country in Europe that did not have legislation for the security industry.


In 1979, the British Ministry of the Interior submitted a report on the British security industry. The report pointed out that the government's attitude towards the security industry is to support self-regulation and management, and it is clear that the UK's Corporate Law and the Employee Protection Act can be applied to any company and employee, that is to say, the rights and obligations of the security industry. Responsibilities and the rights, duties and responsibilities of security company employees can be resolved by following the above two agencies.


In 1990, British Congressman Wei Erle proposed the "Security Industry Law" draft, trying to incorporate security management into the legal system and regulate the management of the security industry. The content is that the security industry provides funds to establish independent supervision units to manage the security industry. Authorized police agencies to assess the security company employees and examine their usual basic performance, but failed to pass the fear of causing the monopoly of the big security company, affecting the survival of small security companies and the policy of commercial freedom.


After the joint efforts of the British Security Industry Association and other organizations and organizations, on May 11, 2001, the British Parliament officially passed and promulgated the "Private Security Industry Law 2001". Since then, the British security industry has bid farewell to the history of unacceptable.


The Private Security Industry Act of 2001 is divided into six parts: the first part stipulates the functions of the Security Industry Administration - the second part stipulates the requirements for issuing licenses, and the third part specifies the certification authority of the Security Industry Administration. The fourth part specifies the obligations of the approved contractor, the fifth part specifies the content of entry, inspection and information management, and the sixth part is the supplementary clause.


In addition, in order to regulate the investigation activities, the UK enacted and implemented the 2000 Powers of Investigation Act (RIPA) in July 2000, which is divided into five parts: The first part is about communication regulations, including interception and communication data. Access and disclosure, the second part is about monitoring and vocabulary to check human resources, the third part is about the regulation of electronic data protection protected by encryption, etc. The fourth part is about the supervision of investigation authority and information service function. Provisions. The fifth part is other supplementary provisions.


Another law related to private investigations was the Data Protection Act 1998, which came into effect on March 16, 2000, through March 1, 2000. This law is divided into six parts: The first part is the preface, including definitions, sensitivity data, special purposes, data protection principles, and the scope of application of the law and committees and courts, etc. The second part mainly stipulates the rights of data subjects, such as the right to personal data and its data controllers are the application of information investigation agencies, the right to avoid damages that may be caused by data processing, the prevention of data processing for direct sales purposes, and the decision-making of self-determination. The third part specifies data control. The notification obligation, such as prohibiting the responsibility of not processing the data, notifying the registration, and changing the notice without registration, the chairman's preliminary assessment, assigning the data protection supervisor to establish the power of the normative clause, the standard of fees and so on. The fourth section sets out the exclusion clauses, which cover exceptions to personal data protection and its treatment, such as national security, crime and taxation, health, education and social welfare, management behavior, journalism, literature and art. , research, history and statistics, legal requirements or disclosure of data according to legal procedures, the power to further define exceptions in the form of orders, etc. The fifth part specifies how to formulate and implement, including the implementation of notices and cancellations, assessment requirements, information release, Failure to follow the rules, appeal rights and judgments. The sixth part stipulates other matters - such as the duties of the Data Protection Committee Chairman and the illegal acquisition of personal data.


2). The competent authority

a. Security Industry Administration

The Security Industry Administration was established on April 1, 2003, under the Private Security Industry Act 2001. It is an organization specializing in the security industry. Its main functions are: approving security organizations - issuing licenses. The security guards will be assessed and the certification organization will guide the security enterprises to carry out the work with the police, accept and handle customer complaints, promote the reform of the security industry and modernize the information, promote technological advancement and innovation in the security industry, and enhance the scientific and technological content of security services. Since the establishment of the Authority, in addition to issuing industry licenses, many suggestions and suggestions for improving industry management have been proposed to promote the healthy development of the UK security industry.


b. Industry association

At present, the British security industry is also managed by the Security Industry Administration. It also relies on professional associations of different business types to organize self-discipline management. The British Security Association is of a non-governmental nature, has an independent operating system and auditing standards, and has greater autonomy. British security companies or individuals participating in each association must undergo a qualification review and can only join if they are confirmed to be qualified. The Association has professional skills review authority, such as the National Security System Certification Committee, which certifies security equipment in accordance with UK Security 5750. If approved, it will issue a certificate with an owl logo. Another example is the British Security Industry Steering Association, which reviews the security company applied for according to the British Standard No. 7499. If it is qualified, it will issue an accreditation certificate.

(1) British Security Industry Association

In order to unite peers and improve service quality, the company strengthened communication with government departments. In 1967, eight security companies jointly established the British Security Industry Association. More than 350 security companies have joined. The association has nine departments, each with a committee responsible for membership review.


The British Safety Industry Association represents industry experts and industry insiders to develop industry regulations and technical standards, and security service quality standards, which generally rise to national standards. These standards, as industry norms, are supervised by the association and play an important role in regulating the development of the security industry and improving the level of security services.

The association has regular training courses and teaching materials to provide training services and teaching materials for member companies. Members exchange information and strengthen contacts through associations. The Association also provides customers with various member service projects and related materials and strengthens contact and interaction with the police as an important task. The association has a security monitoring organization whose main function is to use the government-defined service industry standards. The security company conducts assessments and monitoring.


(2) British Investigator Association (ABI)

Founded in 1913, the British Investigator Association is a UK professional private investigation organization. Over the years, the UK Surveyors Association has matured and played a positive role in advancing the development of the UK private survey industry. The reason why the UK Private Survey Industry Association has obvious industry advantages is that it has absorbed a large number of experienced professional members who not only have British members but also have 28 foreign members representing other countries. Members of the British Investigator Association are strictly selected. Those who become members of the Association must have more than two years of experience in the private investigation industry, strictly abide by the private investigation professional ethics, and be able to enforce industry regulations during the private investigation process.


The governing body of the British Investigator Association is the Management Committee of the British Investigator Association. It consists of 10 members and has a chairman of the Management Committee. These members are democratically elected and are elected once a year at the annual meeting. In addition to holding an annual conference every spring, the British Investigators Association will hold a mid-term meeting, usually in the fall, and mainly hold some education and training seminars. Members can learn about some new technologies and techniques by participating in such seminars, and can more effectively guide their private investigations with dynamic information on the law.


(3) International Professional Security Association (IPSA)

The association was established in 1958 with the aim of improving the professionalism of the security industry and researching and developing security systems. Members include both corporate members and individual members. The Association provides primary education and advanced training courses for new security guards or in-service security management personnel and security managers and publishes the professional magazine "Professional Security" and various security textbooks. Hold various seminars and hold security equipment exhibitions. The association has a dedicated research institute that conducts security management tests on a regular basis. In order to prepare members for the test, the association also has a correspondence school offering a 28-week security course.


(4) National Security System Certification Committee (NACSS)

This committee was established in 1991 and consists of government departments and insurance companies including security companies.

The professional team consists of four security equipment audit certifications including intrusion alarm, access control, closed-circuit television, and central monitoring station.


(5) Security Industry Steering Association (ISI)

The human security guard is the most common service method in the UK security industry. This supervisory association and the security equipment certification committee are of the same nature. They are organizations that assess the qualification of the human security guard company. The Supervisory Association was established in 1992 to conduct business supervision of the human security guard company applying for certification, and to review the security officer's performance record business status, service situation and education and training content.


3). The access system

a. Private investigation industry access

According to the requirements of the UK Safety Industry Authority, personnel engaged in the private investigation industry should be aware of current UK laws and regulations, especially those relating to investigations related to the private investigation industry. Specifically, it is necessary to discover and use sources of information about laws and regulations, procedures, and standards of conduct. It is important to understand the basic principles of judicial interpretation and legal provisions that may affect the area under investigation. A thorough understanding of current and emerging laws, regulations, and standards of conduct that may affect investigation practices, particularly those relating to evidence and procedural laws, and a full understanding of Welsh and Scottish laws in England The difference is to ensure that the private investigation process complies with the laws of different countries or regions related to private investigations, and knows when police or other public service departments are required to intervene during the investigation. Know when to get advice or guidance from others and when to let them quit.


According to the Private Security Industry Act of 2001, in order to become a private investigator in the UK, three conditions must be met: one is no criminal record, the other is 18 years old, and the third is


The UK National Vocational Qualification (NVQ) is tested by a private investigative ability.


The UK Private Investigator's Vocational Qualification Examination is divided into three levels and four levels. Obtaining such a certificate proves that the holder has the skills and knowledge to engage in private investigative work. The third-level competency test is mainly for on-site investigators, while the four-level competency test is for managers, monitors, or individual survey industry individual bosses who are dealing with more complex situations. To put it simply, students who pass the Level 3 exam can work in the private survey industry in their personal capacity. Students who pass the Level 4 exam can start a company or private survey in the private survey industry.


The National Professional Qualification (NVQ) test for private investigators in the UK includes many items. Students who apply for Level 3 should complete three compulsory subjects (4 out of 3) and four electives (20 out of 4) to obtain a Level 3 qualification. Compulsory subjects include: mobilizing and exerting the effectiveness of the investigative team, obtaining the intelligence needed for the investigation, and obtaining information from the witness to use the information obtained to take action. Elective subjects include: obtaining information from suspects, finding and protecting physical evidence, arresting and detaining, coordinating with official cases, providing services to support official actions, participating in reconnaissance operations, conducting investigations into implementation, investigating sources of information, and providing information for an investigation Analyze and evaluate the evidence found in the survey, lead teams and individuals to provide customer service, organizationally provide and maintain reliable customer service, study future risks, detect information technology security vulnerabilities, self-manage, input and integrate data through computer systems and present There are information monitoring processes that control health and safety risks, establish development and maintain positive working relationships, investigate and assess accidents or dissatisfaction in the workplace, investigate and implement information technology security, identify and address threats, and be vulnerable.


Students who apply for Level 4 should complete five compulsory subjects and six elective subjects (17 out of 6) to obtain a Level 4 qualification. The five compulsory subjects include: obtaining information from the witness, obtaining information from the suspect, conducting a process investigation, implementing the source of the investigation information, and providing an intelligence analysis for the investigation and evaluating the evidence found in the investigation. Elective subjects include: finding and protecting physical evidence, arresting and detaining official cases, providing services to support official actions, making recommendations on the feasibility and consequences of investigations, leading teams and individuals to provide services to customers, and providing and maintaining reliable customers. Service, process investigation to implementation, investigation of information source and information for a survey, analysis and evaluation of evidence found in the investigation, management action information, self-management, response to poor performance of the team, input through the computer system and the entire data And existing information, monitoring processes and controlling health and safety risks, establishing development and maintaining positive working relationships, investigating and assessing accidents or dissatisfaction in the workplace.


b. Security industry access

Prior to the implementation of the Private Security Industry Act 2001, the security industry in the security industry had a poor overall reputation due to the unevenness of employees, the high liquidity, and the difficulty of meeting market needs.


Since the implementation of the Private Security Industry Act of 2001 in May 2001, especially since the establishment of the Security Industry Authority on April 1, 2003, in England and Wales, all individuals and companies wishing to engage in the security industry must obtain qualifications. , that is, the license issued by the authority can be joined. The Security Industry Authority conducts a review of the individuals and companies applying for the security industry in accordance with the provisions of the Private Security Industry Act 2001.

Since November 2007, the Scottish region has also begun to implement the security industry practitioners and company qualification review system, and the Security Industry Administration has issued a license for qualified applicants or companies. The current situation of security in Northern Ireland.


Northern Ireland is a special area within British territory, and the judicial system differs from that of Great Britain. With the continuous development of the Northern Ireland economy and the growing tourism industry, the private security industry in Northern Ireland has shown an unprecedented development. However, due to the lack of effective regulatory mechanisms in the security industry in Northern Ireland, some criminals use the security industry to achieve profits for personal or paramilitary organizations.


In order to strengthen supervision of the security industry in Northern Ireland, the Northern Ireland Office issued a document on August 2006, which will conduct a comprehensive investigation of the security industry. They have developed several different regulatory programs and publicly solicited opinions on the website. It is hoped that through this transparent, open and fairway, a scientific and fair supervision model will be established to meet the requirements of the public who need to provide security services. It is recognized by the Northern Ireland Police Department and other agencies.


Here, the Northern Ireland private security industry is regulated by Annex l3 of the Terrorism Act 2000. However, Annex l3 of the Anti-Terrorism Act of 2000 has limited binding on the security industry in Northern Ireland, because this law does not clearly stipulate the standards for the professional standards of crime or the degree of training review - so it fails to play a good normative role.


Since the adoption of the industry license access system in England, Scotland, Wales and other regions, the security company in Northern Ireland has a competitive disadvantage compared with the same industry companies in the above regions because it does not have similar qualification certificates. In addition, the Independent Regulatory Commissioner of Northern Ireland received strong evidence that the Northern Ireland paramilitary organization was involved in the private security industry and benefited some individuals or paramilitary organizations, and was determined to prioritize the remediation of private security in Northern Ireland. 


On August 1, 2005, the Secretary of State announced that the Anti-Terrorism Act of 2000 was abolished on July 31, 2007. Since the date of the abolition, the private security industry in Northern Ireland has been completely out of regulation and there are no barriers to entry. In order to regulate the security industry in the region, Northern Ireland has enacted a provisional agreement for the 2007 Justice and Security (Northern Ireland) Act. Under the terms of this agreement, a person providing or providing proactive security services must obtain a permit issued by the Secretary of State.


Since January 2009, the UK Security Industry Authority has begun to implement a licensing eligibility system in Northern Ireland. The Authority established a project committee to appoint Andy Deray as Chairman and Vice President of the Security Industry Authority to manage project delivery. The committee includes senior representatives from Northern Ireland government agencies and police forces, as well as a senior observer from a private security agency in Northern Ireland. May 2009 - The committee began accepting individual license applications and contractor applications. By December 2009, individuals or companies that have not obtained a license to engage in the security industry are considered illegal. According to the Security Industry Act 2001, the following persons must hold a permit: security contractor, security company director and security company partner security contractor, security company director and security company partner employee, agent, including the agency The directors, partners and employees of the agency manage or supervise the employees of the security guards provided by the security contractor, security company, security company or security agency in the form of a contract. Institutional manager or supervisor who manages or supervises security guards provided in contract form, security company directors or security enterprise partners who do not personally engage in designated activities, in-house gatekeeper vehicle caretakers and their employers, managers and supervisors, other private individuals The person who uses the ground to pass the wheel, locks the vehicle, and charges the unlocking fee.


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